Written by ICP Group

Shockwave Concentrate: EPA registered and Tested to kill Human Coronavirus under the harshest conditions.

ICP’s Environmental Restoration Group supplies a disinfectant formulation proven effective against Coronavirus in real world situations – Fiberlock’s Shockwave concentrate.  For a product to be EPA Registered as a disinfectant it must pass efficacy testing for each given virus or microorganism.  This test includes exposing the subject strain to the disinfectant and the product must kill over 99.99% of the microorganism to pass. Often an organic soil load is added to create a more challenging test as organic material on the surface reduces the efficacy of a disinfectant. The industry standard is a 5% organic soil load which simulates slightly “dirty” conditions.  ICP’s Shockwave was tested, and EPA registered, against the Human Coronavirus at much higher, more challenging, but real-world scenario 98% soil load.

Label is the Law

When faced with specific challenges, it is important to understand the liability potential and responsibility under the law to follow the precise instruction for use sites, applications, and microorganism kill claims, listed on the products’ packaging.  Remember that a sanitizer doesn’t kill like a disinfectant; THEY ARE NOT THE SAME.  Consider that the specific virus or microorganism must be EPA registered and listed on the product packaging.  Also respect that without the EPA registered listing on the label the product cannot be used for that specific application, by law.  Contractors and industry professionals must educate themselves to prevent liability from false claims or improper use based on the labeling.

Controlling the Virus is the Future

Coronavirus outbreaks can become widespread epidemics or even global pandemics. This virus can live on a surface for hours and possibly as long as a day, depending on temperature and humidity. But Coronavirus can be controlled. Although it’s labor intensive an outbreak can be contained with basic cleaning and disinfecting techniques. Special attention should be paid to common “hot spot” or high touch points like door handles, faucets, water fountain knobs, or even toys that are used by multiple children throughout the day.

Written by Joe Spagnuolo

MasterWorks: Sierra House Elementary School Fire Restoration

Fundamentals Of Fire Restoration


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Clean, Deodorize, Seal

On November 11, 2018, the Sierra House Elementary School, in South Lake Tahoe, CA, suffered a fire. Only a portion of the building was damaged, and most grade level classrooms were not directly affected.

This facility is part of the Lake Tahoe Unified School District (LTUSD). The District moved quickly to secure qualified assessment and remediation professionals. In clearly unaffected areas of the school, conducting immediate and proactive basic soot cleaning, and getting reassuring results from air testing enabled a return of students to an improvisational but functioning school by December 3.

But the restoration of the burned and contaminated area would take longer. In fact, the normally scheduled winter holiday break would be fortuitous as it provided more time for the contractor to work unimpeded, and keep a very aggressive completion schedule for the restoration. After tear out of unsalvageable material, and the preliminary steps described below (like analysis, testing and mobilization), the consultant and restoration contractor together conducted a by the book fire damage restoration that followed the three fundamental actions: CLEAN, DEODORIZE and SEAL. Of these, the application of a sealer to restrict future emanation of smoke odor sounds simple, but there are key choices including the chemistry and performance attributes of the sealer. At the Sierra House Elementary site, the decision to utilize Fiberlock’s ULTRA RECON Smoke & Odor Sealer was made collectively as a change away from a decades-old, but problematic traditional product: alcohol-borne shellac.

Sierra House Elementary School


The restoration phase timeline began in November 2018. Adhering to best practices, the LTUSD hired an independent consulting professional, referred to in industry standards as the IEP (Indoor Environmental Professional), taking care there was no relationship with the remediation contractor. Fortunately, a qualified IEP firm, Premier Environmental, was based locally, and provided on-site expertise in engineering, industrial hygiene, and fire/smoke damage assessment. To collaborate with the IEP, and act as a liaison with the school system, the LTUSD made available an in-house Recovery Project Manager, also with engineering and environmental background. The District Architect was also brought in for consultations.

The remediation contractor already selected was Belfor – annually the largest or near the top of restoration contractors worldwide, and who had an office with experienced fire professionals in nearby Stateline, NV. Belfor also could provide abatement services for asbestos and lead if needed. Initial response decisions and speed are crucial in mitigating the degrading effects of smoke damage, and the Belfor Stateline crews swung into action immediately. Areas directly affected by the fire were isolated, and air movement with carbon filtration (to remove contaminants and reduce odors) were implemented strategically, including proactive air scrubbing in the areas not impacted by the fire. By the beginning of December, the scope was more extensive, and Belfor had an experienced project manager with fire damage expertise flown in to run the remediation full time.

By the end of November, the consultants (Premier) were finalizing the protocol for upcoming soot cleaning based on surveys and analysis of the site. These surveys included determinations concerning any potentially hazardous materials, such as asbestos and lead paint, not directly related to the fire but required by regulation. Lead testing with an XRF instrument found no lead in paint or tile in any of the affected areas. But a door in the contaminated burn area had tested positive for asbestos, was damaged by the entering fire department such that now friable asbestos fibers (friable is prone to becoming airborne and inhaled) were potentially present. Standard asbestos protocols were initiated and the area was abated by removal of the asbestos-containing material (ACM), then cleared after negative results from additional air testing. Meanwhile, the LTUSD decided to have the air quality tested by a method using sample canisters shipped to a laboratory for identification (if possible) of all detected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Upon receipt of the results, the IEP/consultants summarized some good news for the school, students and parents:

“VOC sample results came in. As expected, the presence of various Volatile Organic Compounds were detected in each sample, however all concentrations were … found to be well below these regulatory levels. All lab results are provided in PPB (Parts per billion by volume). Note: Many of the VOCs found are also found in over the counter household cleaning products and personal items (i.e. acetone, isopropyl alcohol, etc). These can also be in every day items used in schools, dry erase markers, sharpies, etc. A few of the VOCs found in the samples are also found in citrus odor masking agents and perfumes….” [these latter VOCs were attributed probably to odor counteractants used during the fire deodorization process].

In mid-December, Belfor was able to attack the remediation of the impacted area with a full-scale effort. A letter from the school to interested parents and others described the process and objectives as:

“Work will begin on Wednesday December 12th and will include the replacement of ceiling tiles and other porous materials; deep cleaning within the attic space; and restoration of the HVAC system and duct work in the source area, hallways, and restrooms. The goal is to complete the remediation and odor abatement prior to January 7th, when students return to school after the winter break.”

By December 11, the contractor’s trailers and Conex containers were arriving, and by the 17th Belfor had setup a cleaning area outside the building to detail clean contents from classrooms. Same week, the elementary school moved to an alternate site for the last week remaining before winter break. This gave Belfor and Premier an unoccupied building to work with.

Sierra House Elementary


The three fundamentals of fire damage taught in the ICP Masterworks training for Fiberlock installers and specifiers are CLEAN, DEODORIZE and SEAL. Of these, cleaning, is paramount. Consistent with the other major property damage disciplines (e.g., like CLEAN, KILL, COAT in mold remediation), the fundamental principle of fire restoration is source removal – i.e., there is no substitute for the hard work involved in removing contaminants from combustion. These residues, also known as PICs (Products of Incomplete Combustion), like soot and ash, are obviously detrimental to appearance and aesthetics. Another major concern is the degradation caused by corrosive residues. When cellulosic (wood, paper) components and contents burn, nitrogen compounds are released that combine with the fire department’s extinguishing water to form nitric acids. With plastics, the bad actor released is generally chlorine forming chloric acids (such as hydrochloric acid) with the water. Another reason cleaning is crucial, and the faster the better, is because of the damaging effect of acids as PICs.

A growing concern is very toxic residues. Data plus experiences are accumulating that indicate combustion residues often involve toxics of serious concern. These are substances we clearly don’t want in our indoor environment, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), strong active solvents (benzene, toluene, naphthalene), furans, dioxins, and phenols. Removing these toxins wherever possible is another reason to clean and then clean some more.

And then there is the smell. The most insidious residue from fire is smoke odor that can reappear in a restored property many months after work is complete. Carried by the pressurized smoke, and deposited onto and into everything as soot ash, and oils, the odor can vary substantially in manifestation and intensity depending on the fire. Every fire is its own unique project, but unless properly addressed, a consistent worry is that any structure fire can result in residues which release smoke odor and irritants indefinitely. Post-fire odor has many negatives. Obvious is that it is unpleasant. For those emotionally impacted by the fear and loss associated with the fire itself, the smoke odor return can be traumatic. While unique to the intersection of each individual with each fire, there can be contaminant substances associated with the smoke odor that act as an asthma trigger, or even play a role in more serious health issues.

The aforementioned collection of fire-associated impacts calculate toward the value of a sealer, and the features, functions and benefits the chosen coating needs to deliver. In a perfect world, the cleaning process would be so straightforward, without complications and 100% effective that a sealer would be unnecessary. Of course, in a perfect world there would have been an efficient fire that consumed its fuel and left no PICs behind. Instead, in our imperfect and inefficient reality, the sealer is a necessity and truly the final step of the professional deodorization process in general, and which was specifically performed at Sierra House Elementary.

Some deodorization takes place through the initial demolition and removal of what can’t be saved, and then more odor-rich residue is removed through cleaning. This initial phase is often labeled Subtractive Deodorization. After source removal, a variety of chemical deodorizers are available to address residual odor: masking agents, perfumes/scents, fixatives, and counteractants that chemically change the odor (typically metazene-based solutions that react with and change combustion compounds associated with odor). Then, after all the effort involved in the CLEAN phase, and the target treatments chosen to DEODORIZE, the final step – SEAL – is more necessity than option, and that importance has been recognized for decades by the restorers that traditionally have finished fire jobs with copious gallons of alcohol-borne shellac. That was the habitual reflex that led to a few pallets of shellac delivered to the Sierra Elementary jobsite initially, but that product would end up returned.

By January 5, progress had been made, if not quite enough to reopen the structure. Another bulletin to parents described the project status as:

“Work that Belfor has completed over the Winter Break: All corridors have been abated. Lower pod is being cleaned again, including duct cleaning in each room and is sealed off from other areas of the school so there is no cross contamination as abatement and construction continue. HVAC units for portables have been cleaned. The admin office is being prepped for ceiling demo… Upper pod abatement began today (January 4th) and will go 7 days a week until complete.”

The anticipated completion date had been January 7th, but the schedule had to extend because of a development common with fire restoration – the discovery of more smoke residue on wall cavity insulation that was thought uncontaminated, but now would also require cleaning, soot removal and sealer in the cavity, and finally reinsulation and reconstruction of the wall. In fact, this delay scenario would repeat numerous times in January and February 2019. When fire damage restoration professionals claim their specialty is demanding and sophisticated, one persuasive justification is the difficulty achieving an accurate map of the spread of soot. Fortunately, Belfor’s depth of resources could compensate with additional skilled workers and equipment.

Ultra Recon Smoke Odor Sealer


By March, technical experts from Fiberlock had been to the project twice to support a collective decision on the project to move to a water-based smoke odor sealer, provided it would work as well as the shellac, and would be supported by the manufacturer. Both Premier and Belfor had extensive previous experience working with Fiberlock products and field staff on mold, water, hurricane, flood and fire projects. Both were confident support was available.

For this case study, the principal owner of the Premier consulting firm, Nate Seward, PE, CIH was asked about the thought process behind considering RECON instead of shellac. The following is his response provided with his permission:

“Due to the concerns of environmental hazards related to this fire loss, we performed comprehensive environmental air and surface sampling throughout the school site, revealing the fire-related contamination and necessary remediation was much more extensive than originally thought. Our protocol recommended the removal of impacted walls and ceilings along with HVAC systems so that remediation and cleaning procedures including HEPA vacuuming of soot, ash and char particles could be performed. Knowing that the detail cleaning and remediation procedures of these building surfaces was somewhat limited to the exposed surfaces only, there was concern about how to address the interstitial spaces (i.e. between framing members, under sill plates, etc.) and also the penetration of smoke odors into porous wood materials. Therefore, we recommended the contractor use the Fiberlock Recon product in accordance with the manufacturers specifications to be applied to seal the wood framing and/or other structural building materials impacted by the smoke damage after the cleaning process was performed. We recommended the Recon as a water-based sealer based on our knowledge, experience and understanding of its effectiveness and specific design for sealing smoke related odors, in addition to the added benefit of the manufacturers warranty.

After inspecting the application of the Recon product within the school, we are extremely pleased with the success of the product as a smoke sealer.”

To supplant shellac, the challenge for a water-based product is to offer equal reliability in sealing smoke odor and to reliably seal stains. If that can be demonstrated, then there are several advantages to a water-based formula. From a Building Science perspective, shellac can cause condensation and mold issues because the dry film is a total vapor barrier. While shellac blocks stains and smoke odor, it also stops that surface from breathing the way buildings often need to. For the specifier, there are further benefits to a water-based option: lower odor, lower VOC, and the sealer is non-combustible. That last advantage can be a very important worksite safety issue. For example, the shellac originally shipped to the site has a flash point of 54°F (12°C). In Lake Tahoe in March it wasn’t hard to imagine ambient temperatures right around that flash point, and on a construction site ignition sources (such as a power switch on a worklight) are inevitably everywhere.

From the installer’s view, replacing with a water-based product is a welcome change for many reasons, most of which relate to ease of use. The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) requirements are simpler, especially in tight spaces, which in attic spaces were present at Sierra House Elementary. Soap and water cleanup is significantly easier and quicker than the gummy, often frustrating and always time consuming cleaning of equipment and lines with denatured alcohol. Time is money, and another expense associated with shellac is the extended time required to run air movers and scrubbers to remove the powerful alcohol odor that dwells in a structure, often for days. Water-based products can have less odor at the outset, far lower VOC content, and the project can move forward to reinsulation and reconstruction of the wall system faster. Taken altogether, shellac’s inconveniences previously accepted as necessary evils because there was no alternative, now become costly ad avoidable with a water-based competitor that works as well or arguably better. The development of ULTRA RECON by Fiberlock liberated the fire contractor, delivered the advantages of water-based formulation, and importantly, the building could continue to breathe as intended.

Advancement in technology are often accompanied by an increase in cost. As described, the water-based ULTRA RECON certainly delivers labor savings (even if just counting the cleanup), reduced costs in PPE and engineering controls (Ventilation), but what about the material cost of the product itself? Further good news for all involved is that the ULTRA RECON price delivered was actually $8 less per five-gallon pail ($1.60/gallon) than the shellac that ended up returned. Because the manufacturer was able to turn around hundreds of gallons on very short notice and to a relatively remote location, any remaining arguments about product choice re: price or logistics were negated.

From February thru May 2019, Belfor crews applied the ULTRA RECON sealer in white as the final remediation step as their crews progressed through the fire damaged areas in Sierra House Elementary. Airless spray was the chosen method of application. Cleanup, as mentioned, was substantially easier, less expensive and less unpleasant. Maintenance and application with airless spray equipment was also improved. Simpler spray equipment and settings were practical, the hybridized acrylic resin system caused no noticeable tip wear or overspray, and none of Belfor’s spray applicators reported clogged spray tips. When the Fiberlock Area Manager, on visiting the jobsite, asked what amount roughly was saved from all these factors, there was broad consensus. Belfor considered labor & materials savings (less down time, no thinner, less wear and tear, lower PPE, no odors, etc.) and the consistent answer was replacing the traditional shellac with Fiberlock’s ULTRA RECON saved them 20%. For a relatively simple change out with multiple upside benefits, the contractor expressed that the choice was obvious, and a decision they would make again in the future.

One final note: The neighboring Presbyterian Church had also experienced a fire and needed restoration. Impressed, the church leaders asked Belfor to conduct their restoration, including using the same sealer.

For additional information, visit www.icpgroup.com

Written by ICP Group

MasterWorks: Historic Colors of America

Making History Both Right and Reality

Author: Cole Stanton

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In this installment from MasterWorks, let’s explore another unique strength of ICP at the crossroads of color, design, architecture and history:  our Historic Colors of America and 20th Century Colors of America systems.  Combined, these two palettes offer the most comprehensive and accurate system for historic colors used across almost three and a half centuries of our built environment in North America.  In the future we will report on the 20th Century colors.  For this edition, the focus is on the colors from the 1600s up to the advent of the 1900s which are found in our Historic Colors of America.


For preservation of historic and heritage buildings, the value of these tools is self-evident.  Increasingly, a wide range of owners, managers, contractors and designers are also discovering this resource unique to ICP for remodeling and restoring irreplaceable properties.  Presently, far more of our color requests from architects and designers are for samples from the historic collections than any other system, and this growth is accelerating.  In part this is due to greater awareness as more structural professionals join the ICP MasterWorks Community.  It is also trending up because ICP users are adapting our historic colors not just for California Paint, but as well for new brands such as APF, ScuffmasterPli-Dek and Fiberlock.

For example, APF is well suited to doing custom colors and color matching as they make their own colorants and have a color lab on site. Adding a historic palette to their resources augmented an already strong skillset with custom matching. In Eagan, MN, the Scuffmaster team also welcomes the opportunities afforded by customers with historic special color needs; Scuffmaster will match any color for you with no upcharge and no minimums required.

Note one caveat is that Scuffmaster’s metallic products (Solid Metal and EnviroMetal) cannot match bright whites. The metallics start out as a straight silver – we can tip the color from there but we cannot lighten it. For a Historic Color in a sparkling or glistening Scuffmaster product, check out Scuffmaster’s finish Smooth Pearl.

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Fiberlock’s ability to match these Historic Colors is especially important for the lead paint encapsulated with LBC Lead Barrier Compound. The benefit of getting a historically accurate color and compliance with the lead laws simultaneously is extremely attractive to both architects and owners.The Las Vegas Academy High School encountered just this while needing repainting and discovering that it contained both asbestos and lead based paint. After over 70 years of exterior paint jobs, they wanted to get back to authentic color and make the architectural detail a prevalent feature once again. Check out the case study, here.


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Starting With a Historic New England Partnership

I grew up in Boston, and like many was spoiled by the rich history including an architectural legacy bestowed cumulatively since the 1600s.  And like many of us, I was fooled early by the dignified shades adorning the Georgians, Federals and Victorians in the cities, leafy suburbs, and bucolic farms of New England.  Snow white muntins and mullions of double-hung wood windows were an expectation.  I thought fair and quiet body colors accentuated by contrasting and conservative dark trim was status quo, but it turns out that was stereotype.  From those 1600s saltboxes through the post-moderns of the 1970s, there has been a liberal use of color, and in some eras (e.g., like the Victorian) a rollicking spectrum of paints used inside and out.  What did the colors of the past actually look like? Turns out that for many years historians mistakenly assumed that the colors of the past were somber and muted, based on colors found when modern paints were scraped away from old surfaces. However, modern scientific paint research has gradually discovered a vivid palette and surprisingly flamboyant combinations.

Pre-1939 Homes

The advancement of accuracy and accessibility of historic color took a quantum leap forward with the development of the Historic Colors of America as a joint venture of California Paints and Historic New England –  the oldest and largest regional heritage organization in the nation.   Founded in 1910, as the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA), there could be no better partner to collaborate with in search of truly authentic hues.  In conjunction with their conservators, curators, and historic architects, a team assembled by our California paint organization over several years analyzed thousands of historic colors to accurately represent the last three plus centuries.  Some colors were rediscovered from the society’s 123,000 objects and 1.5 million archival materials that chronicle life in the Northeast since the seventeenth century.  This included the singular Edward K Perry paint archive.  The Perry Paint Collection revolves around the accrued content of the client showroom (the ‘Sample Room on Newbury St.) of the Edward K. Perry Company of Boston, an important and influential design firm of the 20thcentury. This collection provides colors, as well as information about practices and materials available to the paint industry from about the 1930s to the 1980s.

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But the effort wasn’t only archival.  The collective effort was extended to the collection and analysis of hundreds of samples from real historic sites.  Historic New England leveraged their knowledge of candidate sites with probable value for research.  California Paints conducted forensic examinations to descend into field samples of paint, layer by layer, to identify and isolate lost colors and establish their provenance for now and preserve it for the future. Sometimes samples came not from buildings but from contents from folk carvings to elegant corner cupboards. These objects supplemented the research on interior colors which in past eras featured bold colors in homes.  The combination of brilliant woodwork colors and vibrant walls brought rooms alive.


Turning Research Into an Unprecedented Tool

The Historic Colors of America is organized by architectural era.  Some of the earliest pigments, in relatively humble hues like Farmhouse Ochre and Codman Claret, are included in the Colonial  section that houses the mid-1600s to about 1780.  Colonial architecture in this context can be thought of as structures based on the traditions and preferences that European settlers knew from their ancestral cultures and tastes.  Original Colonial styles were built primarily along the east coast (dominated by the the classicism of Georgian England), gulf coast (think St. Augustine and Spanish florida) and portions of the southwest with the renowned Mission and Spanish Baroque traditions. They were built before the era of industrialization, and unaltered examples have a characteristic “handmade” quality in such details as doors, windows, brickwork or siding. The most characteristic Colonial house is usually a one or two-story box, two rooms deep with symmetrical windows.


The Federal style was the dominant style of the new Republic (1780-1830). During this period the population tripled in size and expanded to the west and south. The style was mostly concentrated in prosperous port cities of the eastern seaboard in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, New York, South Carolina and Georgia. Diversity of spatial planning found in interiors of the period reflected the style of Robert Adam, the gifted English architect who also popularized design elements such as swags, garlands and urns. Symmetry, lightness and delicacy characterize the Federal or Adam style. One of the earliest examples of this style was the ceiling in the Mount Vernon dining room, executed for George Washington in 1775.

In general, Federal houses may be rectilinear and boxlike, with perhaps an elliptical fanlight over the front door and sidelights flanking the door. Door trim may include thin columns or pilasters and curved or octagonal projections may reveal the shape of interior rooms. Also characteristic are curving steps and windows recessed within arches. The roof is oftenconcealed  behind a balustrade.

From roughly 1825-1855, The Greek Revival period began and ended in this country with public buildings built in Philadelphia. One of the most familiar icons of American architecture is the full-colonnaded Greek Revival mansion of the southern states with its large veranda or living porch. The front-gabled house was popularized in the early nineteenth century and became the predominant form of urban houses in the northeast and Midwest well into the twentieth century.

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The classical temple form with a portico across the entire front and the roof ridge running from front to back is employed for buildings of all kinds and sizes including cottages. Dormers are rare and roofs are generally gabled or of low pitch. The front door is typically surrounded by narrow sidelights with a row of transom lights above. The most common types of ornament are the anthemion and the Greek fret, wide pilasters and deep, heavy cornices. Wooden buildings were invariably painted white.

For the balance of the 19thcentury, the styles that were popular during the long reign of Britain’s Queen Victoria are generally referred to as “Victorian.” Growth of railroads and industrialization led to changes in mass productions and shipping of house components, while the development of mechanized saws and lathes led to a profusion of wooden ornamentation. The extravagant use of complex shapes and elaborate detailing are clearly reflected in these landmark houses.

Late Victorian styles of this period, also known as “Stick” and “Queen Ann,” became intertwined and tend to overlap each other. Characteristics such as multicolored walls, asymmetrical facades, and steeply pitched roofs are common features. Dwellings were built with every conceivable type of trim including wooden lacework, patterned shingles, porches and towers with conical roofs. Roofs are often complex with cross gables, conical turrets, dormers and decorative brackets beneath eaves. Finials and crestings were frequently used to decorate the roof ridges.


Accessing These Color Tools


To start browsing the historic selections, you can certainly visit a California Paint retailer that participates in this program. But ICP has made it convenient to get started online.  Several of our color systems can be explored via our Digital Fan Deck available at https://www.californiapaints.com/find-my-color/.  Select the drop down menu, and choose either Historic or 20thCentury.  Then find colors for the era of interest.  For example, if the building is in the Art Deco style, there are 38 colors in the 20thCentury Colors of America system from that period, from Bahaus to Emerald City to Gatsby Gold to Urban Brick. Of course, colors on electronic screens are just an approximation.  Color samples on cardstock are the next step, and are made available at no charge.  To send a request, take note of the preliminary color choices, and use the Digital Fan Deck’s companion order form (seehttps://www.californiapaints.com/find-my-color/color-chip-order-form/), or email requests to specifications@masterworks.com.  Please note that some seasons the volume of requests can surge, and it can take 7-10 days before color chips are processed and sent to US and Canadian addresses.


Want more?

From Historic New England, Here are some resources helpful when thinking about historic paints:

Moss, Roger W., ed. Paint in America: The Colors of Historic Buildings. Preservation Press: Washington, D.C., 1994.

Nash, George., Renovating Old Houses. The Taunton Press: Newtown, 1998.

Weaver, Martin, E., Conserving Buildings: A Manual of Techniques and Materials. Preservation Press: New York, 1997.

Weeks, Kay D., and Look, David W., Preservation Briefs #10, “Exterior Paint Problems on Historic Woodwork.” National Preservation Services, National Park Service: Washington, D.C., 1982.

We would love to hear from you about experiences and product needs you see across this burgeoning industry. Watch for some new LinkedIn discussion groups, and we invite you to send emails to the MasterWorks team at MasterWorks@icpgroup.com.

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